The magnetic field of the earth is generated by the dynamo action of liquid metal in the earth’s interior.

  • The Riga Dynamo Experiment
  • Generation of a Magnetic Field by Dynamo Action in a Turbulent Flow of Liquid Sodium
    • “We report the observation of dynamo action in the von Kármán sodium experiment, i.e., the generation of a magnetic field by a strongly turbulent swirling flow of liquid sodium.”
    • https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.044502
  • The von Kármán Sodium experiment: Turbulent dynamical dynamos
    • “We first report observations related to the self-generation of a stationary dynamo when the flow forcing is ℛ𝜋-symmetric, i.e., when the impellers rotate in opposite directions at equal angular velocities.”
    • https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3085724
  • Geomagnetic Dynamo: A Laboratory Model
    • “A mechanical model of a homogeneous self-maintaining dynamo was devised which confirmed Herzenberg’s model of the earth’s magnetic field”
    • https://doi.org/10.1038/1981158a0